Identified Challenges and proposed solutions
Guidance for accident investigation
At a flag state level, guidance and structure for the completion of maritime investigation is provided through international organizations (e.g., IMO, EMSA). Nevertheless, at an operator level (e.g., shipping company or port authority) the guidance is less descriptive and no enforcement to follow a clear structure is in place. This leads to different interpretations and applications by operators which in turn lead to a variety of investigation types. Not employing the same standards
and taxonomies makes it complicated to compare safety occurrences and identify trends.
To fill this gap the OALC-M case study aims to develop a Human Factors and Risk-based Investigation Suite for maritime end-users that utilizes the existing guidance and structure from international organisations (e.g. IMO, EMSA). Additionally, the adoption of SAFEMODE tools and techniques (e.g. SHIELD Taxonomy, HF Fact Sheets and Best Practice, Risk Models) at an operational level will be encouraged.
Lack of Proactive Safety interventions
The traditional approach adopted by the marine industry has been focused on accidents, developing reactive regulations to prevent the recurrence of such accidents. Indeed, maritime safety regulations have often been introduced as a response to an accident (see Figure: Regulations implemented after Accidents).
More often than not, safety critical occurrences do not result in accidents due to safety barriers and interventions. These near misses and positive interventions provide a great source for learning and identifying risks before they result in an accident. Therefore, the second identified need is addressed by creating a proactive investigation process, encouraging its adoption and by providing harmonised tools to successfully collect data during safe interventions and near misses.
Knowledge about Human Factors Techniques/Methods
A multitude of HF techniques and methods exist but it was found that this knowledge is not widely spread within the maritime domain and therefore only a small number of operators are specialized in their use. This situation prevents organizations from applying HF techniques for accident investigation. The issue is addressed by providing guidance on how to apply HF techniques and providing recommendations on which techniques are suitable for which scenarios. This is done by utilizing
the Human Factors Toolkit which has been developed within SAFEMODE.